The role of Viceroy, or Governor-General of India, was the head of the British administration in India.
In 1947 Earl Louis Mountbatten was the final British Admiral appointed to the role of Viceroy of India by British Prime Minister Clement Atlee following his service in India during the Second World War. He was tasked with the role of overseeing the transition of India into an independent country.
Mountbatten enforced a deadline date of August 15th 1947 for the transfer of power from the British to the Indians, arguing that a strict timeline would convince Indians the British government's sincerity in working towards a swift and efficient independence.
In the winter of 1946, in the run-up to the partition of India, massive anti-Muslim violence erupted in Eastern India, on the border of what is now Bangladesh. It is alleged that members of the Hindu organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, attacked Muslims in retaliation to an earlier threat in South eastern Bengal in which 300 people were killed, and many were forcibly converted to Islam.
Arjuna is one of the key figures in the most important sacred Hindu text the Bhagavad Gita, the record of the conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna. This relationship is seen as representative of the Hindu ideal, man guided by God.
The name Arjuna means bright, shining and silver and he was such a skilled archer he was referred to as Jishnu – the undefeatable.
The swastika is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, which in Sanskrit means well-being. It is seen as pointing in all four directions of the compass signifying grounded stability. When facing right the icon represents the evolution of the universe and the sun as the rotation of its arms imitates the daily course taken by the sun.
When facing left it represents the involution of the universe and is associated with magic and the goddess Kali.
In 1946 Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, a British politician and President of the Board of Trade took part in the British Cabinet Mission to India aimed to plan the transfer of power from the British Raj to Independent Indian leadership. However, the solution devised by the Cabinet Mission Plan was considered unsatisfactory to the Indian National Congress and its principal leaders, leading to the country heading further towards partition.
During his time in India Stafford Cripps became friends with Jawaharal Nehru, later referring to the friendship as "the greatest privilege of my life".
News reel footage of Stafford Cripps arriving in Delhi for Cabinet Mission Talks in 1946