Page 259. " Cape Farewell lies on the same latitude as Oslo "
Extreme points of Greenland
Public DomainExtreme points of Greenland - Credit: Wikimedia Commons

 Uummannarsuaq (Cape Farewell in English, Kap Farvel in Danish) is the southermost point in Greenland, located at 59°46′23″N 43°55′21″W, at the same latitude as Oslo and Stockholm.

Google Map
Page 261. " 'Beluga' I say. 'A small whale' "
Creative Commons AttributionBeluga - Credit: jessi.bryan, Flickr

 The Beluga (or white whale) is a marine mammal which inhabits Arctic and sub-Arctic waters. Beluga rarely exceed five metres in length (not a lot for a whale).  They have a distinctive all-white colouring. They are commonly called sea canaries due to their unmistakeable high-pitched twitter.

Beluga are classified as Endangered, according to the IUCN, and in some regions (e.g. Alaska) are critically endangered.

Page 267. " the novel about the sailorboy Peder Most "

Sailor Peder Most is a character from a novel popular in Denmark at the beginning of 20th century, written by Walter Christmas in 1912.