Page 162. " Childe Harolde not unfrequently perches himself upon the mast-head "

A reference to the famous poem by George Gordon Byron (1788-1824), which delivered his archetypal 'Byronic' hero - an undisguised avatar of himself, representing an adolescent ideal of melancholy, solitary nobility. 

Online copy of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1812-1818)

 

Page 162. " and who offers to ship with the Phaedon instead of Bowditch in his head. "

The Phaedo was one of the dialogues of the great Greek philosopher Plato, along with the Republic and the Symposium. Nathaniel Bowditch (1773 – 1838) was an American mathematician who wrote a famous book on ocean navigation, the American Practical Navigator.

Page 163. " like Cranmer's sprinkled Pantheistic ashes "

Thomas Cranmer (1489 – 1556) was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury. Tried for treason and heresy by the Catholics, he was executed and his ashes scattered.

Page 169. " he would fain have shocked into them the same fiery emotion accumulated within the Leyden jar of his own magnetic life. "

A Leyden jar is a device that stores static electricity between two electrodes on the inside and outside of the jar. Invented in 1745, it was used to conduct many early experiments in electricity.