Page 302. " that blood-dripping head hung to the Pequod's waist like the giant Holofernes's from the girdle of Judith. "
Judith Beheading Holofernes by Artemisia Gentileschi
Public DomainJudith Beheading Holofernes by Artemisia Gentileschi - Credit: Artemisia Gentileschi [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

In the Old Testament's Book of Judith the Assyrian general Holofernes laid siege to the city of Bethulia. The city was saved when Judith entered Holofernes' tent and beheaded him while he was drunk. The story has been depicted numerous times in painting and sculpture.

Page 305. " That's he! That's he! The long-togged scaramouch the Town-Ho's company told us of! "

Scaramouche was a stock character in 17th-century Italian farce who dressed in black and was usually portrayed as a buffoon or coward. Scaramouche also appears in Punch and Judy puppet shows.

Page 305. " in their cracked, secret meetings having several times descended from heaven by the way of a trap-door, announcing the speedy opening of the seventh vial "

This is a reference to the Book of Revelations: "And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous, seven angels having the seven last plagues; for in them is filled up the wrath of God And I heard a great voice out of the temple saying to the seven angels, Go your ways, and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth."

Page 307. " in his gibbering insanity, pronouncing the White Whale to be no less a being than the Shaker God incarnated. "

The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing is a religious sect which originated in eighteenth-century England. They became known as the Shakers because of the ecstatic nature of their religious services. The Shakers believed in the dualism of God as male and female.