Periurban (peri-urban) slums are sprawling areas of slums outside a city. Mike David, history professor at UC-Irvine, explains, "They have become one of the most important sites in world politics, because it’s the social reality we know least about, where the city meets the countryside in a hybrid and unprecedented form."
The Shining Path is the nickname of the Communist Party of Peru, a Maoist guerrilla organization. In the 1980s, the Shining Path said its goal was to replace a "bourgeois democracy" with new government that would impose a dictatorship over most of the country. The Shining Path was criticized for its brutality, and is currently on the terrorist list of a number of countries, including the US. Today, the group is much less active due to the arrest of its leader in 1992.