"Fangalo, the African Esperanto spoken in the gold mines"
Fanagalo is a simplified language based primarily on Zulu, and incorporating some English and Afrikaans. It is one of a number of simplified African languages that developed during the colonial period to promote ease of communication.
African mine workers in a migrant hostel - Credit: Cape Archives Repository
Fanagalo is used mainly in South Africa’s gold and diamond mines, which employ workers from across South Africa, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. During the mid-20th century the South African government made some efforts to promote and standardise Fanagalo as a universal second language, under the name of "Basic Bantu".