Page 140. " Voortrekker Monument, intended to symbolize the fundamental values and unshakable resolve of the Boer founding fathers "
Voortrekker Monument
Public DomainVoortrekker Monument

The Voortrekker Monument dominates the skyline just outside Pretoria.  It was built to honour the Voortrekkers who left the Cape Colony between 1835 and 1854. The architect, Gerard Moerdijk, aimed to design a "monument that would stand a thousand years to describe the history and the meaning of the Great Trek to its descendants."

The cornerstone was laid on 16 December 1938 by three descendants of the Voortrekker leaders Andries Pretorius, Hendrik Potgieter and Piet Retief (prior to 1994, 16 December was commemorated by Afrikaners as the Day of the Vow, when they remembered their victory over the Zulus at the Battle of Blood River). 



Wagon mural, Voortrekker Monument
Creative Commons AttributionWagon mural, Voortrekker Monument - Credit: Bruce Damer

The monument is 40 metres high, with a base of 40 metres by 40 metres. After passing through the gate one finds oneself inside a big laager consisting of 64 ox-wagons made of decorative granite (the number of wagons in the Battle of Blood River laager).  At the foot of the Monument stands a bronze sculpture of a Voortrekker woman and her two children. On each outside corner is a statue, representing Piet Retief, Andries Pretorius, Hendrik Potgieter and a fourth leader representative of all the other Voortrekker leaders. Each statue weighs approximately 6 tons.


Page 141. " the prosperous, confident look of extras in Coppola's Cotton Club "

The Cotton Club is a 1984 crime drama, which centres on a famous 1930s Harlem jazz club of the same name.  It offers a fictionalized history of the club, in the context of race relations in the 1930s.

Dancers in a Jazz Club, USA, 1940s
Public DomainDancers in a Jazz Club, USA, 1940s - Credit: William Gottlieb

The movie was directed by Francis Ford Coppola, the man behind The Godfather movies and Apocalypse Now.  He is described by the IMDb as one of America's most erratic, energetic and controversial filmmakers. 


Page 142. " Bishop Lekhanyana, prophet of the Zion Christian Church "

The Zion Christian Church (or ZCC) is the largest African Initiated Church in southern Africa, with around 3 million followers. It is headquartered at Zion City Moria, in Limpopo. The church was formed in 1924 by Engenas Lekganyane. It was officially registered as a church in 1942, by which time congregations had been established in Botswana and Zimbabwe. The early church was strongly influenced by the Christian Catholic Church of John Alexander Dowie, based in Zion, Illinois in America, and by the teachings of the Pentecostal missionary John G Lake, who began work in Johannesburg in 1908. After Engenas Lekganyane's death in 1948, his son and appointed heir Joseph succeeded him as the leader of the church. However, Joseph's older brother, Edward, contested this, and the church split into two branches. Edward's branch retained the name Zion Christian Church. Joseph's branch came to be called the St. Engenas Zion Christian Church.

Today, the branches are led by Engenas’ grandsons - ZCC is led by Barnabas Lekganyane, and Saint Engenas ZCC is led by Saint Engenas Lekganyane. The ZCC is characterized by an emphasis on divine and faith healing, purification rites, dancing, night communion, river baptism, the holy spirit and prophesying. The religious and administrative leader of the church, the bishop, is believed to be a mediator between the congregation and God. On Sundays members attend open air services, wearing white, blue or green robes and carrying staffs. Every Easter, over a million Zionists make the pilgrimage to Moira, the remote rural headquarters of the church.