Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika (God Bless Africa in Xhosa) was originally composed as a hymn by a Johannesburg teacher, Enoch Sontonga, in 1897. In 1927 seven additional Xhosa stanzas were added by the poet Samuel Mqhayi. The song became a pan-African liberation anthem and was later adopted as the national anthem in five African countries after independence. It was the official ANC anthem during the apartheid era.
In 1994, Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika and the previous national anthem, The Call of South Africa/ Die Stem were adopted as joint national anthems. In 1996, a shortened, combined version of the two anthems was adopted.
Two actors play roles of various black South Africans - a vendor, barber, servant, manual laborer, soldier - receiving the news that Christ (Morena) has arrived in apartheid South Africa. Christ's arrival precipitates a crisis, and the government launches a nuclear bomb against the peacemaker. In the ruins, great South African resistance leaders, such as the ANC President Albert Luthuli, are resurrected. The play includes mime, song and dance. See excerpts on vimeo.
His work includes numerous volumes of poetry, novels, and essays, many of which are in Afrikaans. His work has been translated into Dutch, English, French and German.
Art historian Walter Gibson has written that Bosch confronts his viewer with "a world of dreams [and] nightmares in which forms seem to flicker and change before our eyes." In the early seventeenth century, the Dutch art historian Karel van Mander described Bosch’s work as comprising "wondrous and strange fantasies" but noted that they were often “gruesome to look at.” It is generally accepted that Bosch’s fantastic imagery was created to illustrate specific moral and religious concepts and narratives.
The toi toi (or toyi toyi) is a Southern African dance, long used in political protest in South Africa. It involves the stomping of feet and chanting, and may include political slogans or songs. After the 1976 Soweto massacre, the toi toi as a military march dance became commonplace in massive street demonstrations across South Africa. Since the advent of democracy in 1994, South Africans continue to use the toi toi to express their grievances against poor service delivery.