Page 227. " We seldom saw Lena in her sangoma regalia "

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A sangoma is a practitioner of traditional medicine, divination and counselling in Zulu, Swazi, Xhosa and Ndebele communities of Southern Africa.  The traditional culture of these communities accords strong reverence to the ancestors, who are believed to protect the living and provide a guide in the afterlife.  It is believed that individuals are selected by the ancestors to become sangomas.  Through sangomas, ancestors in the spirit world can give instruction and advice to heal illness, social disharmony and spiritual difficulties.

The sangoma undergoes Thwasa, a period of training including learning humility to the ancestors, purification and the use of traditional medicines (muti).  At the end of Thwasa, a goat is sacrificed to call to the ancestors and appease them.  Sangomas may access advice and guidance from the ancestors through possession by the ancestor, throwing bones and channelling, or interpreting dreams. 

Sangomas far outnumber western-style doctors in Southern Africa, and are consulted first, or exclusively, by approximately 80 percent of the Black population.

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Page 227. " Joseph Lelyveld, a New York Times correspondent and author of Move your shadow "

Joseph Lelyveld (born 1937) was executive editor of the New York Times from 1994 to 2001, and interim executive editor in 2003.  He is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author.  He began work at the Times in 1962, where he went from copy editor to foreign correspondent within three years.

His book, Move Your Shadow: South Africa, Black and White is based on his his reporting from Johannesburg in the 1960s and 1980s. It won the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction in 1986.