Page 291. " Anyone who doubted the menacing nature of Africa was sent to see Africa Addio "

Africa Addio is a 1966 Italian documentary about the end of the colonial era in Africa. The film was released in a shorter format under the names "Africa Blood and Guts" in the USA, and "Farewell Africa" in Britain. The film was shot over a period of three years by Gualtiero Jacopetti and Franco Prosperi.  It has been described as a "shockumentary".  It includes footage of the Zanzibar revolution, which saw the massacre of approximately 5,000 Arabs in 1964 (estimates ranged up to 20,000 in the following period), as well as of the aftermath of the Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya.

 The film has been described by numerous reviewers as having a pro-white and pro-colonialist slant, and it makes virtually no reference to past atrocities and exploitations committed by European colonialists. 

There remains controversy over whether all the sequences in the film are real or whether some were staged or reenacted. Co-director Gualtiero Jacopetti was accused of murder and tried in Italy following claims that one of the executions shown in the film was staged for the camera. He was acquitted. Roger Ebert, in his review, cited several scenes that he considered suspect, including one showing white Boers leaving Kenya in cattle-drawn wagons to return to South Africa.  Ebert wrote that "real Boers would probably call up a moving van for their furniture and then fly down to the Cape."

Page 296. " even nuke him if it came to it, because we are reputed to have that weapon too "

From the 1960s to the 1980s, South Africa researched and developed nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.  Six nuclear weapons were assembled during the 1980s. South Africa was able to mine uranium ore domestically, and employed enrichment techniques to produce weapons-grade material.  Weapons were tested in the Kalahari Desert, and a high-security weapons research and development facility was established at Pelindaba

Pelindaba Nuclear Facility
GNU Free Documentation LicensePelindaba Nuclear Facility - Credit: NJR ZA

In 1977, the Soviets uncovered evidence that suggested South Africa was preparing for a full-scale nuclear test.  Western governments and the Soviet Union placed strong pressure on  South Africa not to proceed.  The test site was subsequently shut down. In September 1979, a US satellite detected a double flash over the Indian Ocean that was suspected, but never confirmed to be a nuclear test.  There was much speculation that South Africa has carried out a nuclear test, possibly in collaboration with Israel, but this was never confirmed.  South Africa dismantled its nuclear weapons' program in 1989, and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. 

Page 297. " the cool, urban Afro-disco sound of Hotstix Mabuse "

'Best of Sipho
Public Domain'Best of Sipho "Hotstix Mabuse' CD
Sipho "Hotstix" Mabuse was born in Johannesburg on 2 November 1951. “Hotstix” is an early nickname acquired for his skill on the drums, an instrument he mastered at age 8. Mabuse started his career in the soul group the Beaters, a high school band formed when he was 15. The Beaters evolved to become Harari, and became extremely popular on the South African music scene in the 1970s.  They drew on the influences of American-style funk, soul and pop music, sung in Zulu, Sotho and English. In 1978 the group was invited to perform in the USA with Hugh Masekela. During the tour, the band’s leader Selby Ntuli died, leaving Sipho as the new front man.  Harari split in 1982.  Mabuse’s solo career has proved highly successful.  His 1985 hit Burn Out sold over 500,000 copies.  Subsequent albums include the 1996 Township Child, and two live albums in 2005 and 2006.