Africa Addio is a 1966 Italian documentary about the end of the colonial era in Africa. The film was released in a shorter format under the names "Africa Blood and Guts" in the USA, and "Farewell Africa" in Britain. The film was shot over a period of three years by Gualtiero Jacopetti and Franco Prosperi. It has been described as a "shockumentary". It includes footage of the Zanzibar revolution, which saw the massacre of approximately 5,000 Arabs in 1964 (estimates ranged up to 20,000 in the following period), as well as of the aftermath of the Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya.
The film has been described by numerous reviewers as having a pro-white and pro-colonialist slant, and it makes virtually no reference to past atrocities and exploitations committed by European colonialists.
There remains controversy over whether all the sequences in the film are real or whether some were staged or reenacted. Co-director Gualtiero Jacopetti was accused of murder and tried in Italy following claims that one of the executions shown in the film was staged for the camera. He was acquitted. Roger Ebert, in his review, cited several scenes that he considered suspect, including one showing white Boers leaving Kenya in cattle-drawn wagons to return to South Africa. Ebert wrote that "real Boers would probably call up a moving van for their furniture and then fly down to the Cape."
From the 1960s to the 1980s, South Africa researched and developed nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Six nuclear weapons were assembled during the 1980s. South Africa was able to mine uranium ore domestically, and employed enrichment techniques to produce weapons-grade material. Weapons were tested in the Kalahari Desert, and a high-security weapons research and development facility was established at Pelindaba.
In 1977, the Soviets uncovered evidence that suggested South Africa was preparing for a full-scale nuclear test. Western governments and the Soviet Union placed strong pressure on South Africa not to proceed. The test site was subsequently shut down. In September 1979, a US satellite detected a double flash over the Indian Ocean that was suspected, but never confirmed to be a nuclear test. There was much speculation that South Africa has carried out a nuclear test, possibly in collaboration with Israel, but this was never confirmed. South Africa dismantled its nuclear weapons' program in 1989, and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.