"the possibility of having children with enhanced characteristics"

The notion of human beings with enhanced features is known as posthumanism.  It encompasses both cybernetic and philosophical ideas, and is concerned with altering the human form in order to overcome its limitations.  Posthumanism can be seen in actual areas of medicine such as prosthetics and IVF.  It has also become a popular and important subject area in science fiction with some particularly well-known examples being the films The Terminator and Robocop.

      

Such ideas have also been explored in other artforms, such as the pioneering electronic group Kraftwerk's album The Man Machine.