The Praxinoscope was an animation device, created in France in 1877. It used a strip of pictures placed around the inner surface of a spinning cylinder, with a series of mirrors positioned to give the effect of a moving image as the device rotated.
The Phasmatrope was the first creation to present a sense of movement to a large audience at once. Images are placed around a metal disc which was rotated by hand crank to position each image briefly in the beam of the projector lamp.
The Zoopraxiscope was created in 1879, and used a disc similar to that of the Phasmatrope to project a sequence of images. It used glass discs with hand painted images, some of which were very complicated.