In the 19th century, children could be switched by a birch branch, twitched by a cane, pummeled by the paddle or terrorized with a tawse (leather strap). But corporal punishment was viewed as only one half of the solution. The second half of the game was shame. The Victorian era was notorious for embarrassing their children into acceptable behavior or better performance. If a child chose not to do well in school, or was simply behind the learning curve, he was forced to wear a cap bearing the word, "Dunce."