Carl Linnaeus (1707 - 1778) -  also known as Carolus Linnaeus, or Carl von Linné - was a Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician. Linnaeus created a new way of classifying biological entities, by breaking them down into classes, orders, families, genera and species. Linnaean Taxonomy, as set out in his book Systema Naturæ, revolutionised the field of binomial nomenclature (naming of species), and his basic categorising principles survive in the popular mind today as the game 'Animal, vegetable, mineral?'

The Linnean Society of London website.