Lottery in this case does not refer to a gambling game with a numbers draw but to a card game.
The fish are a type of counter that was often used in the 18th century.
Shoe-roses were lace or ribbon rosettes worn over the shoes by fashionable men and women in the 17th century. The tradition survived to the beginning of the 19th century, though possibly only for special occasions.
Balls and dances where almost the only place where young men and women could meet and talk "alone". It was also the best place to find a suitor and was usually the prelude to any marriage proposal.
That's why to be stuck with a bad dancer and a young man who did not interest her was so trying for Elizabeth.
A clergyman had a share of that money to spend according to certain rules. Some of it was meant to be used to help the less fortunate and to maintain the church.