In the past the main means of transportation on the canals was the gondola, a flat-bottomed boat. Nowadays, gondolas tend to be reserved for tourists, while residents use water buses (vaporetti) and private water taxis.
At Crufts, dogs that have qualified in regional rounds compete in a hierarchical fashion: firstly, they compete against members of their own breed to determine Best of Breed; then they compete against winners of other breed sections to determine Best of Group (groups being categories such as hounds, terriers etc.); finally, they compete against other group winners for the top two accolades: Best in Show and Reserve Best in Show.
Short, artificially-waved hair was a popular style for women during the 1920s and 1930s. Waves could be created using heated curling irons or simply by using the fingers and a comb on wet hair. Curling irons were first developed in the 1870s in France by François Marcel Grateau, and the effect created by them became known as the Marcel Wave. Waves created by the alternative method were known as finger waves.
Click here to see a picture of the young Daphne du Maurier with a Marcel Wave.
Click here to see some more elaborate 1930s hairstyles.
Joan of Arc (known in French as Jeanne d'Arc) was a 15th century French peasant girl whose divine visions inspired her to take a leading role in the Hundred Years War. Following her capture by the Burgundians, she was burnt at the stake for heresy at the age of 19. She was canonized (declared a saint) by the Roman Catholic church in 1920.
In 1909, the French hairdresser Antoine devised a short haircut for women known as coupe à la Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc cut), the inspiration for which may have been a painting by Alfred Lynch. It became known in English as the bob.
The bob style, which is often fringed, is created by cutting the hair uniformally at jaw level, or slightly higher. In the 1920s, it became particularly associated with an emancipated breed of young women who were given the name flappers in English and garçonnes in French. During the latter part of the decade, its popularity was given a further boost by films starring the American actress and dancer Louise Brooks, whose hair was cut in a very sleek bob style.
Click here to see a picture of the young Daphne du Maurier with bobbed hair.
Magnolia is a very ancient genus of flowering plants which contains about 210 species.
One of the most commonly grown Magnolia trees in Britain is the deciduous hybrid Magnolia x soulangeana (saucer magnolia) whose springtime blossoms may be various shades of white, pink or purple, and are often fragranced. One of its distinctive features is that its flowers emerge before its leaves.
Another popular British choice is Magnolia grandiflora, an evergreen, native to the United States, which is also known as the bull bay or southern magnolia. It has dark green glossy leaves and bears highly-fragranced white/cream flowers in late summer and autumn.
A mackerel sky, so-named because of its similarity to the markings on a king mackerel's back, is a sky dappled with clouds of the cirrocumulus, or altocumulus type. It is occasionally known as a buttermilk sky.
Harrods is a smart department store situated on the Brompton Road in Knightsbridge in the London Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. A small shop on this site was established by Charles Henry Harrod in 1851, and by 1880 was employing 80 people. When this business was destroyed by fire, it was replaced by the present-day building. Harrods is particularly renowned for the variety and quality of produce in its food-hall.