Now therefore command thou that they hew me cedar trees out of Lebanon; and my servants shall be with thy servants: and unto thee will I give hire for thy servants according to all that thou shalt appoint: for thou knowest that there is not among us any that can skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians.
1 Kings 5:6
Today, Lebanon's flag bears the cedar:
Crusoe borrows from Abraham’s reply to the rich man in hell, in the parable of Lazarus:
And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried and said, "Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame."
But Abraham said, "Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented. And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence."
Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world. And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever.
1 John 2:15-17
The Hebrew prophet Elijah was sent into hiding and fed by ravens. The episode had a great personal significance for Defoe.
And the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, "Get thee hence, and turn thee eastward, and hide thyself by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan. And it shall be, that thou shalt drink of the brook; and I have commanded the ravens to feed thee there."
So he went and did according unto the word of the LORD: for he went and dwelt by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan. And the ravens brought him bread and flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh in the evening; and he drank of the brook.
1 Kings 17:2-6
Umbrellas were not actually introduced in Britain for about another three decades: they were first noticed by the English in the Mediterranean, South America and other hot climates.
The Stoic School was a movement begun by the Greek philosopher Zeno around 300 BC. They believed in freedom from emotions, pleasure or pain in order to achieve psychological strength. Common tradition had it that they never laughed or smiled.
Devout Muslims are expected to grow their beards as commanded in the Hadith:
The Prophet said, 'Do the opposite of what the pagans do. Keep the beards and cut the moustaches short.'
- Volume 7, Book 72, Number 780
Interestingly, the Turks on whom Crusoe models his facial hair have turned this edict on its head.
I had fainted, unless I had believed to see the goodness of the LORD in the land of the living.
Wait on the LORD: be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thine heart: wait, I say, on the LORD.
Listen on Spotify: Psalm 27 sung by Westminster Abbey Choir