Page 101. " whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building of the Temple at Jerusalem "
Cedar of Lebanon
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeCedar of Lebanon - Credit: J. Nathan Matias

This refers to the Bible passage 1 Kings 5:5 – 6:36, in which Solomon sends for cedars from Lebanon to build the Temple of Jerusalem. The trees were famous for their size.

Now therefore command thou that they hew me cedar trees out of Lebanon; and my servants shall be with thy servants: and unto thee will I give hire for thy servants according to all that thou shalt appoint: for thou knowest that there is not among us any that can skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians.

1 Kings 5:6


Today, Lebanon's flag bears the cedar:


Page 102. " Between me and thee is a great gulph fixed "
Lazarus and the Rich Man
Public DomainLazarus and the Rich Man - Credit: Gustave Doré

Crusoe borrows from Abraham’s reply to the rich man in hell, in the parable of Lazarus:

And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried and said, "Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame."

But Abraham said, "Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented. And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence."

Luke 16:23-26.

Page 102. " I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, or the pride of life "

Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him.  For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world.  And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever.

1 John 2:15-17

Page 105. " as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens "
Elijah in the Wilderness, Washington Allston
Public DomainElijah in the Wilderness, Washington Allston - Credit: Zenodot Verlagsgesellschaft mbH

The Hebrew prophet Elijah was sent into hiding and fed by ravens. The episode had a great personal significance for Defoe.

And the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, "Get thee hence, and turn thee eastward, and hide thyself by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan.  And it shall be, that thou shalt drink of the brook; and I have commanded the ravens to feed thee there."

So he went and did according unto the word of the LORD: for he went and dwelt by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan.  And the ravens brought him bread and flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh in the evening; and he drank of the brook.

1 Kings 17:2-6

Page 107. " I spent a great deal of time and pains to make me an umbrella "

Umbrellas were not actually introduced in Britain for about another three decades: they were first noticed by the English in the Mediterranean, South America and other hot climates.

Page 118. " It would have made a Stoick smile "

The Stoic School was a movement begun by the Greek philosopher Zeno around 300 BC. They believed in freedom from emotions, pleasure or pain in order to achieve psychological strength.  Common tradition had it that they never laughed or smiled.

Page 119. " a large pair of Mahometan whiskers "
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeIslam - Credit: jasejc, Flickr

Mahometan or Mohammedan was another word for Muslim, reflecting Islam's veneration of the prophet Mohammad

Devout Muslims are expected to grow their beards as commanded in the Hadith:

The Prophet said, 'Do the opposite of what the pagans do. Keep the beards and cut the moustaches short.'

-  Volume 7, Book 72, Number 780

Interestingly, the Turks on whom Crusoe models his facial hair have turned this edict on its head.

Beards in Islam

Page 124. " How strange a checquer work of Providence is the life of man! "
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeChessboard - Credit: Edwin Dalorzo
"Checquer work" is the pattern of checks on a chessboard. It was a phrase Defoe was fond of using, both in his other literary works and in reference to his own life.
Page 125. " Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer "


 I had fainted, unless I had believed to see the goodness of the LORD in the land of the living.

 Wait on the LORD: be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thine heart: wait, I say, on the LORD.

Psalms 27:13-14

Listen on Spotify: Psalm 27 sung by Westminster Abbey Choir