Page 212. " they would all be hang’d in chains "

Hanging in chains often followed the death penalty for felons, especially pirates, who would be executed, covered in tar and then hung up to decompose as a warning to others.

Page 218. " soundly whipp’d and pickl’d "
Naval Discipline
Public DomainNaval Discipline
At sea, miscreants were routinely flogged and then doused with seawater ("pickled"). While the salt made the wounds sting more, it also helped heal them faster and reduced infection.
Page 220. " With this view I took shipping for Lisbon "
The Castle Sao Jorge overlooking Lisbon
Creative Commons AttributionThe Castle Sao Jorge overlooking Lisbon - Credit: Massimo Catarinella


Lisbon is the capital of Portugal. It was always a key trading port, being a convenient starting point for voyages across the Atlantic to the Americas.  By Defoe's time, the Portuguese Empire was on the wane, but Lisbon was still an important centre of world power.


Google Map
Page 224. " the latter end of Job was better than the beginning "
Job's Despair
Public DomainJob's Despair - Credit: William Blake
As with many of Crusoe’s Biblical quotations, the Book of Job deals with righteousness, suffering and their rewards.

So the Lord blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning: for he had fourteen thousand sheep, and six thousand camels, and a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she asses. He had also seven sons and three daughters.

Job 42:12-13

Page 224. " he order’d me to be let Blood "
Letting blood was a common cure for attacks of nerves or fainting.  It was believed that an excess of one of the humours in the body needed to be released.

Crusoe's earlier chewing of tobacco was based on the same medical philosophy.