This map plots the settings and references in Robinson Crusoe

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Page 23. " the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands "
Sand Dunes in the Canary Islands
Public DomainSand Dunes in the Canary Islands - Credit: Himarerme
Contemporary Map of the Canary Islands (1699)
Public DomainContemporary Map of the Canary Islands (1699) - Credit: Project Gutenberg

The Canary Islands are a Spanish archipelago situated off the north-west coast of Africa. Cape Verde is a formerly Portuguese archipelago to the southwest of the Canaries; it is now an independent country. 

Today both archipelagos are popular holiday destinations, but in Defoe’s time they were used as transit points in the Atlantic trade of sugar and slaves.