"Biafra"
Nigeria and Biafra
GNU Free Documentation LicenseNigeria and Biafra - Credit: Eric Gaba

In 1967, the oil-rich south-east region of Nigeria attempted to secede as the new Republic of Biafra.  This led to two and a half years of civil war and an eventual federal victory.  Up to three million people are thought to have died in the war and the resulting famine.

Biafra War