Mozzhukhin was a silent film actor known as the "Russian Valentino" in the 1920s. (see also Bookmark to page 183). In 1918, like Nabokov and many other members of the St Petersburg intellegentsia and aristocracy, he was in exile in Crimea, though he was about to find a second stardom in Europe. The film of Haji Murad that Nabokov saw being rehearsed in Crimea in 1918 apparently never got beyond the rehearsal stage because political events did not allow the crew to be in Crimea for long enough. Mozzhukhin later starred in a film called Der Weisse Teufel (The White Devil) in 1930, which was said to be loosely based on Tolstoy's Haji Murad.