The New York Herald
The New York Herald was a popular newspaper that existed in New York from 1835 to 1924, the forerunner to today’s International Herald Tribune. Originally published by James Gordon Bennett Sr., a Scotsman who worked as a school master, a proof reader and a freelance reporter for the New York Courier and Enquirer before setting up The New York Herald in May of 1835, by 1845 it was the most profitable and popular newspaper in the United States. In 1861 it boasted a circulation of 84,000 copies.
Departing from the normal practice at the time The New York Herald was sustained by that large circulation and advertising revenue rather than subsidies by political interests or subscriptions from a small number of subscribers. A ‘penny paper’ priced at one cent it appealed to the masses both in price and content being a pioneer in the area of crime reporting. It also reported on society scandals and ‘natural wonders’ such as mermaids and sea monsters, pieces that today would be considered traditional tabloid fare.
In 1866, at the height of its success, James Gordon Bennett Jr. took control of the paper. Having been educated in France, after 1877 Bennett Jr. resided primarily in Paris and managed the newspaper by telegram. In 1887 he launched a, largely unprofitable, daily European edition, The Paris Herald. Under Bennett Jr.’s stewardship the paper went into decline and, following his death in 1918, it merged with its rival the New York Tribune in 1924 to become the New York Herald Tribune. The New York Herald Tribune ceased publication in 1966.
What is interesting to note about this reference in Tender is the Night is that when the action of the novel begins in June 1925 The New York Herald had ceased to exist. It may be that the new New York Herald Tribune continued to be referred to by its former name or this may be an oversight by Fitzgerald.