One of the key figures in the Old Testament, King Solomon was known for his wisdom. People would come from miles around to hear his verdicts on their personal and legal dilemmas.
Among his most famous judgements was the case of two women who both claimed to be the mother of a certain baby. Solomon ordered the baby be cut in two and each of the women be given half, judging rightly that the real mother would insist that the baby be given to the other woman to save its life. When this happened, he was able to return the baby to the real mother.