Page 102. " 'A mesure qu'on a plus d'esprit...' "
A portrait of Pascal
Public DomainA portrait of Pascal
'The more intelligent or spirited you are, the more original people you find. Ordinary people find no difference in others.'

This observation is taking from the philosopher Pascal's Pensees, published after his death in 1670.


Page 106. " gathering cuckoo-spittle on her skirts "
Cuckoo spittle
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeCuckoo spittle - Credit: Pollinator
Cuckoo spittle is produced by an insect, the froghopper, to protect its developing young. As its name suggests, it looks like gobs of spit on the stem of plants.
Page 106. " the thin notes of the second-hand harp "


Page 107. " the ache of modernism "

Modernism describes the change in thought and modes of expression that took place towards the end of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century. Confidence in an all-powerful Creator God was breaking down, and as people saw their traditional ways of life being eroded by industrial innovation they turned away from many of the ideas and assumptions that had underpinned previous generations. Literature, music, art and architecture all reflected this shift. Indeed, Hardy himself is sometimes credited with having written the first modern novel, Jude the Obscure.



Page 108. " Valley of Humiliation "

This is another reference to John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.

The Valley of Humiliation is a further challenge that Christian must face in his journey towards eternal life.

Page 108. " the man of Uz "

Public DomainJob - Credit: William Bromley
The man of Uz is the biblical character Job.

The quotation is taken from the Book of Job (7:15). God tests Job's faith to the limit by destroying his family and possessions, and causing him extreme physical suffering.

Page 108. " like Peter the Great in a shipwright's yard "
Peter the Great by Alexandre Benois (1916)
Public DomainPeter the Great by Alexandre Benois (1916)

Peter the Great was Russia's Tsar in the late 17th and early 18th century. He did much to expand Russia's power in the world.

He spent time studying shipbuilding in Zaandam, Holland, and drew on the experience to build a strong Russian naval fleet.

Page 108. " He would become an American or Australian Abraham "

Public DomainAbraham - Credit: James Tissot
Abraham is a central character in the Old Testament of the Bible. He is considered the father of the Jewish, Christian and Islamic faiths (the Abrahamic religions).

Abraham had a divine vision that he would be the father of nations, with descendants more numerous than the stars in the sky. This prophecy was doubly extraordinary because he and his wife were childless until old age, when Sarah miraculously gave birth to Isaac.

Page 109. " the poor Queen of Sheba "
The Queen of Sheba in the Qu'ran
Public DomainThe Queen of Sheba in the Qu'ran

The Queen of Sheba features in many ancient texts, including the Qu'ran and Ethiopian manuscripts. In the biblical account, the Queen comes to test King Solomon, having heard talk of his wisdom.

Some scholars think that the love song in the Song of Songs is between Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.

Page 112. " made him think of the Resurrection. He little thought that the Magdalen might be at his side "

The Resurrection
Public DomainThe Resurrection - Credit: Fra Angelico
In the Gospels of Matthew and John, the resurrection of Jesus Christ is first discovered by Mary Magdalen when she comes to his tomb in the burial garden and finds the body gone. It is early morning and because of the poor light she doesn't at first recognise the man standing nearby, mistaking him for a gardener.

Mary Magdalen was a prostitute and social outcast, so Tess has a bit more in common with her than Angel realises.

Page 113. " He called her Artemis, Demeter "
Public DomainDemeter

Artemis was the ancient Greek goddess of hunting, virginity, childbirth, wildness and young girls.

Demeter was the goddess of the harvest and a protector of the sanctity of marriage.

Both goddesses were frequently depicted in Greek and Roman art, and were famed for their beauty.

Page 114. " Conjuror Fall, t'other side of Casterbridge, that they used to call Wide-O "

Wide-O features in another of Hardy's novels, The Mayor of Casterbridge. A marginal but vital character, he plays a part in the downfall of Michael Henchard when he predicts that the harvest will be bad. Henchard believes him and buys grain in bulk, anticipating that he will be able to make a lot of money selling it when the crops fail. But the signs appear to contradict Wide-O's predictions and, losing his nerve, Henchard sells the grain at a much lower price than he bought it for, making a huge loss. Just as his rival buys up Henchard's last stocks, the weather turns bad and the harvest fails after all.



Page 122. " 'till we get into the That-it-may-please-Thees' "
A 1596 edition of the Book of Common Prayer
Public DomainA 1596 edition of the Book of Common Prayer

Marian is talking about a section of the Book of Common Prayer, the guiding text used in many Church of England services.

In this section, the minister reads out a series of prayers using the formulation, "That it may please Thee"; the congregation responds, "We beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord".

Page 123. " sermons in stones "

The phrase "sermons in stones" comes from Shakespeare's play, As You Like It. In this scene, the exiled Duke is talking about the good that he sees in the natural world where he must now live, away from the rituals of the court.



And this our life exempt from public haunt 
Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones and good in every thing. 
I would not change it.

Act II, Scene 1

Page 124. " A time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing "
A wheelbarrow
Creative Commons AttributionA wheelbarrow - Credit: Cal KT
Izz Huett is quoting from chapter 3 of the biblical book Ecclesiastes. This famous passage states that there is a time for everything. Tess is scandalised by her use of scripture to justify enjoying being carried by Angel Clare (and probably also unsettled by the warm feelings she glimpses in another woman for the man she loves).

In fact, Izz's scripture was by no means the only scandalous thing about this scene for Victorian readers. So shocking was the idea of physical contact between unmarried men and women that when the book first appeared in serial form in The Graphic, Hardy was forced to rewrite the scene so that Angel Clare transports the girls in a wheelbarrow rather than carrying them. Not nearly so romantic.

Page 125. " Three Leahs to get one Rachel "

Jacob and Rachel
Public DomainJacob and Rachel - Credit: Joseph von Führich
In the Book of Genesis, Jacob wishes to marry Rachel. He asks permission from her father, Laban, who gives his consent after Jacob has worked for him for seven years. However Laban is anxious to marry off his older, less attractive daughter Leah first. He tricks Jacob by dressing Leah in a thick veil so that he marries her without realising who she is. When Jacob discovers what has happened, Laban promises to let him marry Rachel if he will stay and work for him for another seven years.