Page 226. " the Pagan moralist "
Marcus Aurelius
Public DomainMarcus Aurelius
The Pagan moralist is Marcus Aurelius, a leading second century Roman philosopher. Aurelius is one of the champions of Stoicism, a school of thought that encourages people to accept the blows, challenges and joys of life evenhandedly. The quotation comes from his most famous surviving work, Meditations.



Page 226. " the Nazarene "
Crucifixion by Velazquez
Public DomainCrucifixion by Velazquez

Or Jesus Christ, as he is more commonly known. Jesus was a religious teacher in first century Israel. Christians believe that he was the Son of God and that he rose from the dead when the Romans crucified him for stirring up unease among the Jews.

Hardy calls him the Nazarene here because he grew up in Nazareth and is sometimes referred to as Jesus of Nazareth.

Page 233. " how neatly you used to turn 'Twas down in Cupid's Gardens' "

Listen on Spotify:

Cupid's Garden performed by     Oak        Julie Murphy

Many such folk songs died out with the move to the towns and cities, away from the traditional ways of life that gave rise to the songs. However, some still survive and are still performed around the world.

Page 238. " near Curitiba in Brazil "

Now a bustling metropolis with a population of over 3.2 million, Curitiba would have been a pretty isolated place in Angel Clare's day. European settlers had been coming to the region in larger numbers since the 1850s, when the area's main economy was based on cattle trading.


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Page 241. " Solomon had thought as far as that "
The Judgement of Solomon by Gustave Dore
Public DomainThe Judgement of Solomon by Gustave Dore

One of the key figures in the Old Testament, King Solomon was known for his wisdom. People would come from miles around to hear his verdicts on their personal and legal dilemmas.

Among his most famous judgements was the case of two women who both claimed to be the mother of a certain baby.  Solomon ordered the baby be cut in two and each of the women be given half, judging rightly that the real mother would insist that the baby be given to the other woman to save its life. When this happened, he was able to return the baby to the real mother.

Page 242. " like the inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula, they ran amok "

'Amok' is a Malay word meaning to run out of control. In English, particularly in Hardy's day, it described people seizing weapons and attacking others indiscriminately while in the grip of a strong emotion. No one is quite sure why the word should have come into existence in Malaysia, but W. W. Skeat's entry in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica gives a hint:

A Malay will suddenly and apparently without reason rush into the street armed with a kris or other weapons, and slash and cut at everybody he meets till he is killed. These frenzies were formerly regarded as due to sudden insanity. It is now, however, certain that the typical amok is the result of circumstances, such as domestic jealousy or gambling losses, which render a Malay desperate and weary of his life. It is, in fact, the Malay equivalent of suicide. The act of running amuck is probably due to causes over which the culprit has some amount of control, as the custom has now died out in the British possessions in the peninsula, the offenders probably objecting to being caught and tried in cold blood.


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Page 243. " The maiden's mouth is cold "
Public DomainSwinburne
The lines are from Fragoletta by Algernon Charles Swinburne:


O love! what shall be said of thee?

The son of grief begot by joy?

Being sightless, wilt thou see?

Being sexless, wilt thou be

Maiden or boy?


I dreamed of strange lips yesterday

And cheeks wherein the ambiguous blood

Was like a rose's--yea,

A rose's when it lay

Within the bud.


What fields have bred thee, or what groves

Concealed thee, O mysterious flower,

O double rose of Love's,

With leaves that lure the doves

From bud to bower?


I dare not kiss it, lest my lip

Press harder than an indrawn breath,

And all the sweet life slip

Forth, and the sweet leaves drip,

Bloodlike, in death.


O sole desire of my delight!

O sole delight of my desire!

Mine eyelids and eyesight

Feed on thee day and night

Like lips of fire.


Lean back thy throat of carven pearl,

Lest thy mouth murmur like the dove's;

Say, Venus hath no girl,

No front of female curl,

Among her Loves.


Thy sweet low bosom, thy close hair,

Thy straight soft flanks and slenderer feet,

Thy virginal strange air,

Are these not over fair

For Love to greet?


How should he greet thee? what new name,

Fit to move all men's hearts, could move

Thee, deaf to love or shame,

Love's sister, by the same

Mother as Love?


Ah sweet, the maiden's mouth is cold,

Her breast-blossoms are simply red,

Her hair mere brown or gold,

Fold over simple fold

Binding her head.


Thy mouth is made of fire and wine,

They barren bosom takes my kiss

And turns my soul to thine

And turns thy lip to mine,

And mine it is.


Thou hast a serpent in thine hair,

In all the curls that close and cling;

And ah, thy breast-flower!

Ah love, thy mouth too fair

To kiss and sting!


Cleave to me, love me, kiss mine eyes,

Satiate thy lips with loving me;

Nay, for thou shalt not rise;

Lie still as Love that dies

For love of thee.


Mine arms are close about thine head,

My lips are fervent on thy face,

And where my kiss hath fed

Thy flower-like blood leaps red

To the kissed place.


O bitterness of things too sweet

O broken singing of the dove!

Love's wings are over fleet,

And like the panther's feet

The feet of Love.

Page 244. " Cybele the Many-breasted "

Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeCybele - Credit: Joe Goldberg
The mythical earth mother Cybele was similar to the Greek Goddess Gaia. A nurturing and fertile figure, she is often depicted as having many breasts with which she suckles the whole of creation.

Page 248. " the two Marys "

Jesus and Mary Magdalene
Public DomainJesus and Mary Magdalene - Credit: Titian
 Mary, the mother of Christ, also known as the Virgin Mary

 Mary Magdalene, the prostitute Jesus befriended, and the first person to discover that he had risen from the dead.


Virgin Mary
Public DomainVirgin Mary - Credit: Leonardo da Vinci