Page 176. " A small Egyptian canopic jar was the first "

Canopic Jars of Neskhons, wife of Pinedjem II.
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeCanopic Jars of Neskhons, wife of Pinedjem II. - Credit: Captmondo
 Canopic jars were used by the Ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife. They were commonly either carved from lime stone or were made of pottery. All the viscera were not kept in a single canopic jar, but rather each organ was placed in a jar of its own. The jars were four in number, each charged with the safekeeping of particular human organs: the stomach, intestines, lungs, and liver. The canopic jars were placed inside a canopic chest and buried in tombs together with the sarcophagus of the dead. It was believed that the dead person would need their organs to help them through the after life. The Egyptians considered the heart to be the seat of the soul so it was left inside the body instead of being placed in a canopic jar. Sometimes the covers of the jars were modeled after (or painted to resemble) the head of Anubis, the god of death/embalming.

Page 182. " experimented with caftans "

Russian Kaftans
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeRussian Kaftans - Credit: shakko
A caftan (also Kaftan) is a long man's garment made of cotton or silk. Usually collarless, it has long wide sleeves and is tied at the waist by a sash; it is worn under a coat in the Middle East.  In Russia the word "kaftan" is used for another type of clothing: a kind of a man's long suit with tight sleeves. In Morocco kaftans are only worn by women, and are substantially different from their Turkish counterpart.

Page 189. " out into the splendour of Westminster Hall "
Westminster Hall
Public DomainWestminster Hall - Credit: Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin

 Westminster Hall, the oldest existing part of the Palace of Westminster, was erected in 1097. The roof was probably originally supported by pillars, but during the reign of King Richard II, this was replaced by a hammer-beam roof, which allowed the original three aisles to be replaced with a single huge open space, with a dais at the end. Westminster Hall has the largest clear-span medieval roof in England, measuring 20.7 by 73.2 metres (68 by 240 ft).

Palace of Westminster, Westminster Hall.
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikePalace of Westminster, Westminster Hall. - Credit: Tagishsimon

Westminster Hall has served numerous functions. It was primarily used for judicial purposes, but has also served ceremonial functions, including banquets, coronations and lyings-in-state during state and ceremonial funerals. Such an honour is usually reserved for the Sovereign and for their consorts. The two Houses have presented ceremonial Addresses to the Crown in Westminster Hall on important public occasions.



Page 199. " flowing away to the left under Westminster Bridge "


Westminster Bridge and Westminster Palace
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeWestminster Bridge and Westminster Palace - Credit: GraceKelly

 Westminster Bridge is a  road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames.

Westminster Bridge, Westminster Palace and London Eye
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeWestminster Bridge, Westminster Palace and London Eye - Credit: ed g2s
The seven-arch, wrought-iron bridge links the Palace of Westminster on the west side of the river with County Hall and the London Eye on the east.