Carl Czerny (1791-1857) was an Austrian pianist who was once taught by Beethoven. Born into a very musical family, he showed prodigious talent at a very young age. Despite his abilities, he was uneasy about performing in public, so focussed more on composition and teaching. His exercises, or Études, became very popular; they concentrated on the player developing a thorough and rigorous technique. He had a number of notable students, including Franz Liszt.