Sophie Tucker (1884-1966) was a once massively popular Russian-born American singer and entertainer whose stage image emphasized her raucous 'fat girl' image: her songs included 'I Don't Want to Get Thin' and 'Nobody Loves a Fat Girl, But Oh How a Fat Girl Can Love'. She went on to add blues and jazz to her ragtime repertoire. Her 1911 hit 'Some of These Days' became her trademark song.
Duke Ellington (1899-1974) was a pianist and one of the greatest Jazz composers and bandleaders of all time. He is one of the originators of Big Band music and led his own band for more than half a century.
Lesbianism in the novel is linked to the colour purple. But purple also suggests other things: bruises, royalty, nature. Through her lesbianism Celie begins to learn about herself, not how to be a copy of other people like Sophia or Shug. It invests Celie with a sense of power.
Milledgeville is a city in Georgia, USA. It is just northeast of Macon and the county seat of Baldwin County.
Atlanta is the capital city of the state of Georgia.
J.A. Rogers was a prominent Jamaican-American author and historian. His works include From "Superman" to Man. Roger's work was concerned with 'the Great Black Man', a theory which presented history (particularly black history) as a mural of achievements by prominent black people.