"Their father held one of the vials to the light and shook it and twisted out the cork and passed the open bottle under his nose"

That the wolf’s social scent is used to keep the pregnant she-wolf in an area where wolf society has all but been extinguished is one of the bitter ironies of the novel.

A basic scent recipe called for

          eight coyote glands (or wolf)

          1/4 liver with gall

          1 kidney

          black coyote or wolf dung (black from eating meat dust)

The glands were ground together and placed in a glass jar in a warm place until well rotted. Then the dung was distilled in water or wolf or coyote urine and added to the rotted glands. Another recipe used more of the wolf's body parts, urine, and drops of asafetida, anise oil, tonquin musk and Canton musk rather than dung.