The Battle of Kwajalein was part of the United States' World War II Pacific campaign. The conflict was fought from January 31 to February 3, 1944, on Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. By the end of the battle, 373 Americans, 7,870 Japanese (including forced Korean labourers), and an estimated 200 Marshallese islanders were killed.
Waterfill and Frazier began producing bourbon whiskey in Kentucky in 1810 before moving their distillery to Juarez, Mexico in the early 1920s to continue producing throughout the Prohibition years.
The company continued to make bourbon until 1964 when bourbon became a product of the United States and they had to simply call it whiskey. The Waterfill and Frazier company finally folded in 1972.
The guayabera is a light open-necked cotton shirt, often with large pockets and intricate pleats down the front, and typically worn outside the trousers
Although commonly known in the U.S. as the Mexican Wedding Shirt, there is some debate as to its origins with both Mexico and Cuba claiming the shirt as their own.
The Battle of Zacatecas was one of the bloodiest engagements of the Mexican Revolution and decisive in the overthrow of Victoriano Huerta.
On June 23, 1914, Villa’s División del Norte claimed the strategically important town after defeating the federal troops of General Luís Medina Barrón. The rebel victory demoralized Huerta's supporters, leading to his resignation on July 15.
Los Errantes – La Toma De Zacatecas (The Taking of Zacatecas)
Stigmata are marks upon the body which mirror the crucifixion wounds of Jesus. They are primarily associated with the Roman Catholic faith, and usually interpreted as a manifestation of deep faith.
Menudo is a traditional Mexican soup, consisting of boiled tripe in either a clear broth or with a red chilli base, and usually eaten with tortillas. The red variation is usually seen in Chihuahua.
The soup is considered a traditional hangover cure in Mexico, which explains why the woman brings it to the ‘crudo’ Billy.
You can find a Menudo recipe here.
The art of foretelling the future through the study of the palm can be found all over the world in various cultures. Its roots can be traced back to India in Hindu Astrology (known in Sanskrit as Jyotish), Chinese Yijing (I Ching), and Roma gypsy fortune tellers.
For a guide on how to palm read click here.
Spoiler Warning: The following bookmark contains plot information relating to The Crossing and Cities of the Plain.
This is another reference which anticipates Cities of the Plain (see bookmark p.325).
The woman reading Billy’s palm tells him that he has two brothers: ‘Uno que vive, uno que ha muerto’ (‘One who lives, one who has died’) [p.369]. Although Billy does not yet know it, Boyd has already died by this point. The brother who lives is John Grady Cole, not literally but spiritually Billy’s brother.
Waco planes were produced by the Weaver Aircraft Company. The trade name Waco was coined from the title letters of Weaver Aircraft Co.
The company produced warplanes throughout World War II and ceased operations in 1947, having suffered the fate of a number of aviation companies when an anticipated boom in aviation following the war failed to develop.
Barkers were employed at circuses and funfairs to announce the attractions of a specific show and to try and tempt in passing fairgoers.
Often just as entertaining as the shows they promoted, barkers sometimes conducted brief free shows where they introduced the performers and described the acts to be given at the main performance.
Most professional barkers prefer the term talkers, drawing a distinction between what they do and other fairground announcers who simply repeat a few stock phrases.
Better known as patent medicines, nostrums were the drug compounds of dubious medicinal value sold under a variety of names and labels during the 19th and early 20th century, claiming to prevent or cure everything from ‘female complaints’ to cancer. William Radam’s Microbe Killer had the bold claim ‘Cures All Diseases’ embossed on the front of the bottle, while Ebeneezer Sibley went one step further with the promise that his Solar Tincture was able to ‘restore life in the event of sudden death'.
In 1936 patent medicines were effectively banned after stricter regulations came into force. Many products previously marketed as patent medicines remain on supermarket shelves to this day (albeit in revised or repurposed forms), including Anadin, Vicks Vaporub, 7-Up, Bovril, Coca-Cola and Dr. Pepper.
Lotería is a Mexican game of chance, similar to Bingo, but using images printed on cards rather than numbers.
The origins of the game can be traced back to 15th century Italy before it spread to Spain and then to New Spain (Mexico) in 1769. It eventually became a tradition at Mexican fairs.