Page 301. " In the cold, Newgate meat market was just about bearable "
Newgate Meat Market, 1845
Public DomainNewgate Meat Market, 1845 - Credit: Illustrated London News

Newgate meat market lay in the City of London, between Newgate Street and Paternoster Row, roughly where the London Stock Exchange and Paternoster Square are now.


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Women regularly worked in the market. In July 1841, Blackwood's magazine commented:

It would scarcely be credited that, in splendid London, women are subjected to various kinds of severe and repulsive toil .... For example, the porterage of meat at the wholesale markets, as Newgate and Leadenhall, is performed by women, many of them old. You will see these wretched creatures stagger under the weight of a side of beef, or having an entire sheep upon their heads, conveying their burdens to the butchers carts, drawn up in the vicinity of the market ...

See here for more quotes about the market.

Page 308. " the very grandest broughams "

A brougham (pronounced 'broom') is an enclosed horse-drawn carriage on four wheels that was popular in the mid- to late-nineteenth century. It is uncertain as to whether the carriage was invented for the British Lord Chancellor Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham, or simply popularised by him.

Page 309. " the Consort, God save him, is a member of the House of Coburg "

Queen Victoria's husband Prince Albert (1819-1861) was born into a Saxon family, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which was related to many of the royal families in Europe, including those of Russia, Belgium, Portugal, and Bulgaria. Albert is credited with encouraging the development of democracy in Great Britain by persuading Queen Victoria to interfere less in the business of Parliament. Though he had no constitutional power, Albert had a public voice on issues such as the abolition of slavery and Lord Palmerston's foreign policy. 

Page 313. " The unfinished Palace of Westminster "
The Palace of Westminster
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeThe Palace of Westminster - Credit: Diliff

 The Palace of Westminster in London is home to the Houses of Parliament (the House of Commons and the House of Lords). The Old Palace was destroyed by fire in 1834. It was made up of a complex of buildings dating back to medieval times. In 1840 construction started on the new palace, designed by Charles Barry with interiors by Augustus W. N. Pugin. The New Palace was built in the Perpendicular Gothic style, and covers an area of approximately 8 acres.

The palace took thirty years to build; neither Barry nor Pugin lived to see it completed. By the time Colt arrived in London, both parliamentary chambers were finished and in use, although the two towers were still being built.

Page 316. " pieces at the Springfield Armory "
The Springfield Armory
Public DomainThe Springfield Armory

 The Springfield Armory in Connecticut was the leading US site for the research and production of military arms. Originally established by George Washington, the armory was used throughout the American Revolution as a military base, and afterwards as a storage and research facility. By the mid-nineteenth century, the Springfield Armory was involved in bringing the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution to bear on the manufacture of arms; it made particular use of interchangeable parts and mass production.