Richard Lewis, better known as Dic Penderyn (1808-1831), was a Welsh labourer and coal miner who was involved with the Merthyr Rising of June 3, 1831. In the course of the riot he was arrested and charged with stabbing a soldier with a bayonet. The people of Merthyr Tydfil were certain he was innocent, and 11,000 signed a petition demanding his release. He was nonetheless found guilty and hanged. According to popular reports his wife was pregnant at the time, and had a miscarriage as a result. His last words were: "O Arglwydd, dyma gamwedd" or "Oh Lord, here is iniquity."
In 1874, Ianto Parker confessed on his death bed that it was in fact he who stabbed the soldier.