The codpiece was a covering flap or pouch that attached to the front of men's trousers, accentuating the crotch. It was an important item of European clothing in the 15th and 16th centuries.
In the 14th century, men's hose consisted of two separate legs worn over linen drawers, which left the crotch covered only by a layer of linen. As the century wore on and doublets shortened, the genitals were rather exposed – the codpiece began life as a triangular piece of fabric covering the gap. As time passed, codpieces became shaped and padded to emphasize rather than conceal. They were at their most ostentatious in the 1540s, but had fallen out of fashion by the 1590s.
Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter. He was born in Suffolk, and moved toLondon to study art in 1740. His career took a while to flourish, but with his move to Bath in 1759 he finally acquired the patronage of fashionable society. In 1769 he became a founding member of the Royal Academy. He painted portraits of the King and Queen and received many royal commissions. He is credited as the originator of the 18th century British landscape school, while also being the dominant British portrait painter of the second half of the 18th century.
A large gypsum deposit at Montmartre in Paris led gypsum plaster to be commonly known as "plaster of Paris."
The Forest of Dean, in the Wye Valley, was proclaimed as a National Forest Park in 1938. It is a refuge for some ancient woodland, particularly oak, beech and sweet chestnut.
There is a wild population of fallow deer in the forest and there may be some roe deer present. A controversial population of wild boars were illegally introduced, although they were likely to have occurred there previously. Badgers, grey squirrels, voles, hedgehogs, dormice and foxes are also found in the area. There are a wide range of birds that live in the forest, including peregrine falcons and goshawks.