He achieved youthful success as a portrait painter. His later years were however marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. But his work was very popular throughout his lifetime, and he was highly esteemed as an artist. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization.”
Game theory is a tool for analysing strategic interactions between two or more parties. It uses simple, often numerical models to study complex social relations. On this basis, it can illustrate the potential for, and risks associated with, cooperative behavior.
It can be applied to disciplines such as economics, political science, psychology, logic and biology.
John von Neumann is responsible for modern game theory. In 1944 he published Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games among several players. The theory has subsequently been developed extensively by many scholars. Eight game-theorists have won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, and John Maynard Smith was awarded the Crafoord Prize for his application of game theory to biology.
Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters. In 1846, sisters Charlotte, Emily, and Anne published a joint collection of poetry under the assumed names of Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell. Although only two copies were sold, the sisters continued writing for publication and began their first novels. Charlotte used "Currer Bell" when she published Jane Eyre. She explained the use of the pen names as follows:
“Averse to personal publicity, we veiled our own names under those of Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell; the ambiguous choice being dictated by a sort of conscientious scruple at assuming Christian names positively masculine, while we did not like to declare ourselves women, because—without at that time suspecting that our mode of writing and thinking was not what is called 'feminine' – we had a vague impression that authoresses are liable to be looked on with prejudice; we had noticed how critics sometimes use for their chastisement the weapon of personality, and for their reward, a flattery, which is not true praise.”
In Biblical times, headstones were not used - graves were marked with mounds of stones. Placing a stone on the pile was thus a way of maintaining and perpetuating the burial place.
A pork pie hat is made of felt or straw, and has a cylindrical crown and flat top. It originated in the mid-19th century, and was originally a ladies’ hat. According to American fashion reports of the 1930's, the smooth dark brown felt was the original popular model, but the "fuzzier" green model came in close second.
Today, pork pie hats are often associated with jazz and blues musicians and fans.
Spats remain a distinctive feature of uniform of many military bands, including Scottish Highland pipe bands. Traditionally, Highland regiments in kilts have worn spats reaching halfway up the calf. In popular culture the wearing of spats is associated with wealth.
Genghis Khan was born as Temujin, in the 1160s, in the area of modern day Mongolia. By 1190, he and his followers had united many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia, creating a Mongol confederation. They went on to forge a great Mongol Empire, leading invasions across most of Eurasia. Under Temujin’s leadership, the Mongol Empire conquered and/or incorporated the Keraits, Naimans, Merkits, Tanguts, Jin and Tatars. At a council of Mongol chiefs, he was acknowledged as Khan of the consolidated tribes and took the new title, "Genghis Khan."
Temujin had been promised in an arranged marriage at the age of nine. The marriage took place when he was 16. The couple had four sons, who took on the mantle of power after their father’s death. Later, when he rose to power, Temujin took several other wives and had many children, but all were excluded from succession.
By the time he died in 1227, the Mongol Empire occupied much of Central Asia and China. He left behind an army of more than 129,000 men. His sons and grandsons extended his empire across most of Eurasia, conquering or subduing the territories of modern-day China, Korea, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, and much of Eastern Europe, Russia and the Middle East. Invasions under Genghis Khan and his sons were often accompanied by the wholesale slaughter of local populations. Historians suggest that Mongol invasions may have resulted in the deaths of up to 40 million people.