Page 659. " Ranjit-Singh held sway over the Punjab "

Ranjit Singh
Public DomainRanjit Singh - Credit: Woudloper
Ranjit Singh, the 'Lion of the Punjab', was the first Maharaja of the Sikh empire.  He was crowned in 1801 and ruled over the Punjab, leading the Sikh army against the Afghans, until his death in 1839.

Page 660. " the temple of Lakshmi "

Public DomainLakshmi - Credit: Ranveig
The Hindu goddess Lakshmi is the consort of Vishnu.  She is the goddess of wealth and prosperity and is thought to protect her devotees from money problems.

She is known to be closely connected with the lotus and is usually portrayed standing or sitting on the flower.

Page 662. " beyond the Rotang Pass "

The Rohtang Pass
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeThe Rohtang Pass - Credit: Iapain wiki
The Rohtang Pass is a mountain pass through the Pir Panjal Range of the Himalayas, connecting the Kullu Valley and the Lahaul and Spiti Valleys in the Himachal Pradesh state of northern India.

Page 665. " woman in a bourka "

Two women in burqas
Creative Commons AttributionTwo women in burqas - Credit: WeFt
A bourka - usually spelled burqa or burka - is a garment worn by some Muslim women, covering the entire body and the face (apart from the eyes which are sometimes covered with a net).   Although the wearing of the burqa is associated with Islam, it is considered to be more a cultural custom rather than a religious one. 

Page 674. " the Tropic of Cancer "

Map with Tropic of Cancer in red
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeMap with Tropic of Cancer in red - Credit: WikiLaurent
The Tropic of Cancer, also known as the Northern Tropic, is one of the five major lines of latitude shown on maps of the Earth.  The others are the Tropic of Capricorn, the Equator and the Arctic and Antarctic Circles.

The Tropic of Cancer passes through a large number of countries - India, the setting for The Far Pavilions, is one of them.