The Voyage of the Beagle is the name widely given to the book of travel notes and scientific observations gathered by Charles Darwin during his five year expedition aboard the eponymous ship. A map of this voyage can be found here. It was published in 1839 as Journal and Remarks. Although Darwin was to become best known for his study of evolution, the content of this book spans biology, anthropology and geology.
There was by the Victorian period a long tradition of scientific generalists joining expeditions whose main purpose was mapping or discovering new imperial territories. Another famous instance is Joseph Banks, whose part in an 18th century expeditionary survey around the Pacific and South America is recounted in The Age of Wonder by Richard Holmes.