This phrase, meaning "don't touch me", was supposedly spoken by Jesus to his follower Mary Magdalen, when she encountered him just after his resurrection from the dead.
It also appears in a sonnet by Sir Thomas Wyatt, commonly thought to be about Anne Boleyn, the second queen of King Henry VIII. This poem represents Anne as a deer fleeing a hunter who cannot help but chase, although he wishes he could stop. Around her neck, the deer wears a collar on which is spelled out
Noli me tangere, for Caesar's I am,
And wild for to hold, though I seem tame.