"Roland Barthes"

Roland Barthes (1915-1980) was an influential French literary theorist.  His best-known work is The Death of the Author in which he challenges the value of literary critics trying to work out what the author of a book or poem had intended, in order to determine its real meaning.  He points out that it is impossible to know what (often long-dead) authors intended, and instead suggests that books and poems are recreated every time they are read, because their meaning is determined by an individual reader with a different set of opinions, contexts and influences.