"Lavater's Physiognomy"
Illustration of the features associated with different humours, from Lavater's book.
Public DomainIllustration of the features associated with different humours, from Lavater's book.

Johann Lavater (1741-1801) was a Swiss physiognomist and populariser of this pseudoscience through his Essays on Physiognomy. Physiognomy is based on the belief that a person's character can be deduced from an examination of his facial features and body type.