The Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem was one of the first psychiatric hospitals in England, although it could be better described as a "mad house". There was very little understanding of mental illness and the only 'treatment' was restraining inmates. Bedlam, as it was commonly known, admitted its first inmates in the 16th century and by the end of that century its name was a proverbial euphemism for madness.
Myles Birket Foster (1825-1899) was a prolific English illustrator and painter. His depictions of rural scenes shared an idealised view of rural life with Morland's work.
Fowles knowingly refers to The Well of Loneliness, a 1928 lesbian novel by Radclyffe Hall.
While well-respected for his contributions to marine biology, Philip Henry Gosse (1810-1888) gained notoriety and scorn for the theories expounded in his book Omphalos: An Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot. In his memoir Father and Son, Gosse's son portrayed him as tyrannical and fanatically religious.
The Carbonari were secret societies formed in Italy in the early part of the 19th century, with the aim of bringing about various political revolutions.
Jacqueline Kennedy was travelling in the same car as her husband, President of the United States John F Kennedy, when he was assassinated in Dallas in 1963. During the assassination, his blood stained her clothes but she refused to change until the next morning.
Ford Madox Brown (1821-1893, above left) and John Everett Millais (1829-1896, above right) were central members of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood. John Constable (1776-1837, below left) was a landscape painter who painted with particular realism. Samuel Palmer (1805-1881, below right) painted visionary, mystical work as well as highly realistic watercolour landscapes.
In Rabelais' (1494-1593) novel Gargantua and Pantagruel, the Abbey of Thélème is a parody of monkish luxury: an abbey with a swimming pool and maids for the monks. It is also a kind of utopia, however. The only rule of the abbey is "do what thou wilt" - a principle that makes the abbey a utopia, according to Rabelais,
"because men that are free, well-born, well-bred, and conversant in honest companies, have naturally an instinct and spur that prompteth them unto virtuous actions, and withdraws them from vice"
The Tyrrhenian is the sea off the west coast of Italy. Avila is a city in central Spain, famous for its medieval city walls. The Aegean is the sea between Greece and Turkey; the Aegean islands mostly belong to Greece although a few are Turkish.