Page 29. " There was a full moon and the stars were sparkling. Salander looked up and identified Regulus in Leo near the horizon. "
Regulus in Leo
Public DomainRegulus in Leo

 

This is perhaps in anticipation of what is about to come and represents something of Salanders moral character. Regulus, according to astrology, is the 'Lawgiver' - in this constellation the lawgiver is rising to power. Salander is accustomed to taking the moral high ground and effectively playing God or the 'Lawgiver'.

Page 42. " When he put in a request for the report he was told that it was stamped TOP SECRET by order of His Royal Highness "

King of Sweden - Carl XVI Gustaf
Public DomainKing of Sweden - Carl XVI Gustaf
The Swedish Royal Family are basically nominal royals like all other monarchs in Europe. They have their titles and some of them still perform state duties. The royals all belong to the Swedish Royal House of Bernadotte, close relations of the King.

Page 45. " She spent breakfast scribbling figures on a napkin and pondering Pierre de Fermat’s (x3+y3=z3). "
Pierre de Fermat
Public DomainPierre de Fermat
Pierre de Fermat 17 August 1601 or 1607/8 – 12 January 1665)

Fermat was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse. As an amateur mathematician he laid the foundations that eventually led to the development of modern calculus. This 'puzzle' that Salander dwells on throughout the book is called Fermat's Last Theorem. The ambiguity of an equation with no solution is an ingenious way of provoking Salander; who always has a sharp sense of right and wrong.