Page 33. " a copy of The Cat in the Hat "

The Cat in the Hat is a popular children's book by Dr Seuss, intended to be a fun introduction to reading.

   

Page 33. " Fidelis ad Mortem "

A Latin phrase meaning "faithful until death".

Page 38. " and that's Particle Physics "

Scarlett is spot on: particle physics is the study of sub-atomic particles, the most well known of which are electrons, neutrons and protons.

Gold Ions Collision Event
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeGold Ions Collision Event - Credit: Argonne National Laboratory

Page 38. " which queen she had been "
Anne of Cleves, by Hans Holbein the younger
Public DomainAnne of Cleves, by Hans Holbein the younger

This was probably Anne of Cleves, the fourth wife of King Henry VIII.  She was a German noblewoman whose marriage to the king was quickly annulled, so that she was only Queen between January and July 1540.

Page 40. " even to be conquered by the Romans "

Caius Pompeius remembers Britain as a province of Rome. Rome controlled a considerable portion of Great Britain between 43 CE and 410 CE. London itself was founded by the Romans around the year 50 CE.

Map of Roman Britain (381 * 500)
Map of Roman Britain
Emperor Trajan Statue London
Creative Commons AttributionEmperor Trajan Statue London - Credit: litlnemo
Roman Wall in London
Creative Commons AttributionRoman Wall in London - Credit: The Armatura Press
Page 41. " would soon be walled off "

Caius Pompeius refers to Hadrian's Wall, a long stone fortification built by the Romans across northern England in the second century CE.  The wall marked the edge of Roman territory in the British Isles. 

It was the most fortified border in the whole Roman empire, demonstrating perhaps just how scared the Romans were of the savage, orange-furred men of Caledonia.

Page 43. " they were called barrows "

Barrows are large mounds of earth and stone placed over a grave.  They were a common burial feature in Britain between 2900 and 800 BCE.  The dead laid to rest in barrows were usually buried with "grave goods", including treasure. 

The Sutton Hoo hoard is an example of such treasure: a collection of very well-preserved grave goods recovered from the barrow of a high-ranking man.

A barrow at Sutton Hoo
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeA barrow at Sutton Hoo - Credit: Geoff Dallimore
A reconstruction of a helmet buried with the dead at Sutton Hoo
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeA reconstruction of a helmet buried with the dead at Sutton Hoo - Credit: Gernot Keller

 

Page 45. " Someone's made a painting on the wall "

 Cave painting is a prehistoric art form found across the world.  In Europe images of cattle are very common, as are abstract patterns.

Rock carvings
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeRock carvings - Credit: J. Q. Jacobs, jqjacobs.net

Page 46. " His skin was painted "
Celtic Pattern
Creative Commons AttributionCeltic Pattern - Credit: dragonebay
The Pictish Serpent Stone
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeThe Pictish Serpent Stone - Credit: Catfish Jim and the soapdish

The husk of a man buried in the barrow under the Frobisher mausoleum might have been an ancient Pict or Celt. Picts lived in the northern and eastern parts of Scotland, while Celts lived across the British Isles before the Roman conquest and afterwards in Wales, Cornwall and northwest England.

Picts are known for intricate stone carving and skilled metal work. Evidence of indigo patterned tattoos are found in the Celtic historical record. The markings on the Indigo Man are consistent with those of an ancient warrior tribesman.

Page 49. " and a little stone knife "

Knives made by chipping stone to a sharp edge were common across the world in the Stone Age (roughly 2.5 million years ago).

A prehistoric flint knife
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeA prehistoric flint knife - Credit: Rama