This refers to The Fall from Heaven.
Innocence is here equated with ignorance, traits the Republic of Gilead is bent on developing in its women. This can also be seen as a comment on the anti-intellectual nature of blind religious faith.
American Independence Day is on 4 July, commemorating the country’s declaration of independence from Britain in 1776. In the novel, the USA no longer exists and the celebration is therefore redundant.
Labor Day is a federal American holiday on the first Monday in September. It was first organised by Peter J. McGuire, an American labour leader, after he had witnessed Canadian labour disputes which led to a law protecting unionism in Canada. The first American Labour Day parade took place in New York City in 1882, as a celebration of the workers and their families. Today, the celebration still includes parades and political speeches.
The Torah is the name given to the five books of Moses, the texts on which Judaism was founded. Talliths are prayer shawls worn by Jewish men and boys. Mogen David is an alternate name for the Star of David, the famous symbol of Judaism.