A flying jinny is a merry-go-round or carousel. It is a fairground ride featuring brightly painted horses which travel in a circle, "galloping" up and down.
Panama hats are actually of Ecuadorian origin. Finely woven from straw, they are associated with hot seaside climates. The name comes from the fact that the hats were exported from the Isthmus of Panama, along with various other South American goods.
Karl Marx was a 19th century political philosopher. Along with Friedrich Engels, he wrote The Communist Manifesto. This was a condemnation of capitalism and basically suggested that the world's resources should be shared equally.
His ideas are summed up in the line "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".
Baruch Spinoza was a seventeenth-century philosopher. He equated God with Nature and believed that "good" and "evil" were rooted in the material world.
Collard Greens are loose-leafed vegetables from the same family as broccoli and cabbage and are very similar to kale.
The "devices" that Dr Copeland talks about are most likely condoms. By the 1930s, condoms were mass produced, although they were not universally available. Legal restrictions were gradually relaxing, but the Church's stance remained resolutely anti-contraceptives. During the Great Depression, the reusable rubber models grew in popularity, due to their cost effectiveness.