Jewish historian, politician and social worker, Emanuel Ringelblum is best known for “Ringelblum’s Archives”, a collection of documents and testimonies describing life in the Warsaw Ghetto during World War II. Together with other Jewish writers, scientists and ordinary people, Ringelblum set about collecting these records in a secret operation code-named Oyneg Shabbos (Yiddish for "Sabbath delight"). The materials were preserved in three milk cans and ten metal boxes, which were buried in three separate locations in the Ghetto for safekeeping. Two of these archive treasures, including two milk cans, were recovered after the war, but the rest the archive has never been found.
Ringelblum escaped the Warsaw Ghetto with his wife Yehudit and 13-year-old son Uri in 1943, and took refuge in an underground bunker within an “Aryan” part of Warsaw. Tragically, the bunker’s location was betrayed to the Gestapo (the secret police of Nazi Germany) and they were captured on 7 March 1944. Emanuel Ringelblum, his family, and the other Jews hiding in the bunker were all executed.