According to Greek legend, Achilles and Diomedes were prominent heroes of the Trojan War. Homer's epic poem The Iliad casts Achilles in a central role as the greatest and most beautiful of Greek warriors, ultimately ensuring Troy's doom by killing its chief protector Hector.
Diomedes plays an equally vital if less flashy role in Homer's epic, helping Odysseus steal the sacred Trojan relic which made the city impregnable (See note to page 144), and managing to wound several of the immortal gods who supported Troy in the conflict.
Online edition of the 'Iliad', circa 8th-century BC, as translated by Samuel Butler, (1898)
Account of the Palladium's origins in 1st-century BC 'bible' of myth the 'Bibliotecha', as translated and annotated by J.G. Frazer, (1921)
Francis Galton (1822-1911) was an English scholar best remembered for giving the name 'eugenics' to his belief that human personality traits are inherited and might be improved through breeding. Galton attempted unsuccessfully to prove this theory through a series of composite photographs, contained in his Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (1883), which merged the faces of several individuals of a certain personality 'type' in the hope that they would exhibit common facial features.
Eugenics gained popularity and momentum in several nations throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, before the Nazis rendered it a taboo field by taking it to its logical, unforgettable conclusion.
Online collection of the complete works of Francis Galton
Online account of eugenics as practised in early 20th-century America and Germany
A line from Part I of Faust, a metaphysical tragedy by German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). Like most of the lines Freud quotes it is spoken by the demon Mephistopheles, who speaks and acts on behalf of Satan (See note to page 65).
Online text of Faust: The First Part of the Tragedy, (first published 1808)
Zhongguo (Chinese - '中国/中國', English - 'Middle Kingdom') is one of several long-standing Chinese names for China itself. The mandarins were a civil service of specialised, scholarly bureaucrats who served and administrated the will of their imperial rulers for over a thousand years.
From Goethe's poem Totality (1827), a musing on the inevitability of death and decay, from a collection of epigrams:
A well-bred gentleman in head and heart
Is welcomed everywhere;
He has, with his gentleman's wit so smart,
Caught women in his snare:
When fist and strength depart, alas,
Who then shall sure defend him?
When bent with age and thin of ass,
How sits that noble, who once was trim?
Dr. Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919) was a French neurologist and expert on hypnotism, which was a subject of fascination to late nineteenth-century physicians concerned with nervous disorders. Eventually becoming head of the school of psychotherapy at Nancy, Bernheim was a dogged opponent of Freud's one-time mentor Jean-Martin Charcot, who insisted that hypnosis could only be induced in hysterics as a by-product of their neurological deficiencies. Bernheim saw hypnosis as acting on a natural suggestibility present to some degree in all individuals. Freud, who met Bernheim only briefly, nevertheless translated two of his works into German.
Online edition of Bernheim's 'Suggestive Therapeutics', translated by Christian A. Herter, (1889)
Having encountered a man she secretly loves at the funeral of her nephew, Freud's patient dreams wishfully of another relative's death renewing the relationship. This interpretation may have originated the 'Psychopath Test', performed by excitable children and chain-email botherers everywhere:
'This is a genuine psychological test. It is a story about a girl. While at the funeral of her own mother, she met this guy whom she did not know. She thought this guy was amazing, so much her dream guy she believed him to be, that she fell in love with him there but never asked for his number and could not find him. A few days later the girl killed her own sister.
Question: What is her motive in killing her sister?
Answer: She was hoping that the guy would appear at the funeral again. If you answered this correctly, you think like a psychopath. This was a test by a famous American psychologist used to test if one has the same mentality as a killer. Many arrested serial killers took part in this test and answered it correctly. If you didn't answer correctly - good for you. If your friends hit the jackpot, may I suggest that you keep your distance'
Online analysis and debunking at Snopes.com