Page 238. " In ancient pictures we read scrolls issuing from the mouths of painted figures "

   Scrolls containing spoken words, ancestors to the 'speech bubbles' used in comics, are found in pictures from the Middle Ages, most often in depictions of religious scenes.  As Freud notes they fell out of favour with the evolution of art towards visual expression and realism.

Page 239. " for though they never gathered in one hall or on one mountain-top, they surely form a community in our thoughts "


   The School of Athens is one of the frescoes painted by the early 16th-century Italian Renaissance artist 'Raphael' in the reception rooms of the Papal Palace in Vatican City.  It depicts an impossible assemblage of sages and philosophers from various nations and centuries, suggesting that those dedicated to the progression of human understanding are bound by ties that overcome time or space. 

Page 243. " the dreamer is climbing over a railing. As she does so, she is holding a branch of blossom in her hands "

    In Christian theology the 'Annunciation' refers to the passage in Chapter One of the Biblical Gospel of Luke, in which the angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear the son of God.  As Freud suggests, the traditional depiction of Gabriel as presenting a white lily during the encounter refers to Mary's virginity. 


Online edition of the 'Authorized King James Bible', (originally published 1611)

Page 243. " an allusion to the dame aux camélias, who always wore a white cammelia, as we know, but wore a red one at the time of her period "
Camellia, (2007)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeCamellia, (2007) - Credit: KENPEI

   The Lady of the Cammelias (1848), by Alexandre Dumas the younger, is a semi-autobiographical novel chronicling a young nobleman's tragic love affair with the enchanting courtesan Marguerite Gautier.  Her substitution of red for white camellias signifies that she is menstruating, and therefore sexually unavailable. 



Online edition of Dumas' 'La Dame Aux Camilias', (1848)