Page 359. " impressions of colour from my last Italian journey, the lovely blue of the Isonzo and the lagoons, and the brown of the Carso "
Isonzo, (2006)
Creative Commons AttributionIsonzo, (2006) - Credit: Andrea Musi

   The Isonzo or Soča (Slovene) river which originates in the Slovenian Alps, flowing through North-Eastern Italy, is known for its distinctive emerald-green waters.  The Carso or Karst (German) plateau region marks the border between the two nations, its weathered limestone terrain giving the name 'karst topography' to similar locations around the world.


Doberdò del Lago, Italian Karst, (2005)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeDoberdò del Lago, Italian Karst, (2005) - Credit: Alex Brollo

















Carso/Karst region

Google Map
Page 363. " remind us of the legendary Titans whose shoulders from time immemorial bore the great mountain-masses laid upon them "



   In Greek mythology the Titans were those primordial deities who, following a rebellion against their father Uranus (See note to page 197), ruled until the better known Olympian gods overthrew them and took their place.  Here Freud seems to have merged two separate myths concerning the aftermath: the confinement of many Titans to Tartarus, an inescapable prison deep beneath the earth, and the punishment visited on Atlas in particular, who was condemned by Zeus to support the sky on his shoulders for all eternity.  




Online text of the 'Theogeny of Hesiod', as translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, (circa-8th century BC)


Online collection of myth and literature regarding the Titans at  

Page 372. " She thought he went on the campaign for love of gold; so she had molten gold poured down the throat of his dead body "

   Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general of legendary wealth in the 1st century BC, whose lust for conquest and glory led to his death in battle against the Parthinian empire.  The version given here is to be found in Book XL, Chapter 26, of a history by the 2nd century AD scholar known as Cassius Dio.  Although Freud mistakenly refers to a Parthinian 'queen' overseeing Crassus' posthumous mutilation, King Orodes II ruled Parthia at the time.


Online text of Cassius Dio's 'Roman History', as translated by Earnest Cary, (circa-200 AD)