Mohammed Zahir Shah (1914-2007) came to power in 1933 following the assassination of his father. For most of his reign, the real power lay with his two uncles, Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan (Prime Minister 1929-1946) and Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan (Prime Minister 1946-1953).
Kite-fighting is a popular sport in a number of Asian countries, including China, Korea, India and Thailand. In Afghanistan, it is known as Gudiparan Bazi. Competitors attempt to snag each other's kites and cut their strings. To this end, kite strings are smeared with a mixture of glue and ground glass. Kite flyers may bind their fingers to protect them against the abrasive strings.
Under Taliban rule, kite-fighting was banned in Afghanistan.
The Great Game". Consequently, Britain attempted to gain control of Afghanistan over a period of decades, fighting three Anglo-Afghan wars.
The first war (1839-1842) resulted in the destruction of the British Army during its devastating winter retreat from Kabul. Only one Briton escaped. The second war (1878-1880) was a British victory, and resulted in Britain gaining control over Afghan foreign affairs, an important advantage in the struggle with Russia.
The third war (1919) began with an Afghan invasion of British India, a serious challenge for British defenders so soon after the Great War and the Amritsar Massacre. It lasted just a few months and resulted in the British repelling the invasion but losing their control of Afghan foreign affairs. Consequently, Afghans celebrate their "Independence Day" on 19 August, the day Britain signed the Treaty of Rawalpindi establishing the furthest boundary of the Empire at the Khyber Pass.