The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra is a symphony orchestra based at the Concertgebouw concert hall in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. The title Royal was conferred on the orchestra in 1988 by Queen Beatrix.
It was founded in 1888, since when it has had seven principal conductors, including Bernard Haitink between 1961 and 1988.
Bernard Haitink was born in Amsterdam in 1929 and studied music at the city's conservatoire. He was an orchestral violinist before beginning a career as a conductor in 1954.
In the clip below, Haitink is conducting the Royal Concertgebouw in the finale of Strauss's Alpensinfonie.